When this ideal state of affairs (in which a people's Spirit is fully realized in their society) actually occurs, however, "the activity of Spirit is no longer needed" in that society--it becomes static or stagnant, a matter of "habit." We have now learned the abstract characteristics of the nature of Spirit, the means which it uses to realize its Idea, and the form which its complete realization assumes in external existence, namely, the State. The topic of history has been treated frequently in modern Europeanphilosophy. Suggestions Use up and down arrows to review and enter to select. It is rather absent or distant from the world as such. Julien Josset, founder. The-Philosophy helps high-school & university students but also curious people on human sciences to quench their thirst for knowledge. A summary of Part X (Section1) in Hegel's Philosophy of History. * We have published more than 500 articles, all seeking directly or indirectly to answer this question. NOTE: This is the second of a series of five essays on Hegel’s Lectures on the Philosophy of History, essays informed by the transcript of Leo Strauss’s 1965 course at the University of Chicago.. … “Biographical History of Philosophy,” besides treatises devoted more particularly to the Hegelian philosophy. p. 18 The ethical world or the state, is in fact … about theoretical entities and concepts, and there are very few direct analyses Hegel believes in the “rationality of the event”. Excerpt from Hegel FOR BEGINNERS on the Science of Logic. methods). Original history refers to first-hand accounts of events, actions and situations, collected or verified by the historian himself. ” 97, The idea and the human passions “together form the fabric and the thread of world history. The site thus covers the main philosophical traditions, from the Presocratic to the contemporary philosophers, while trying to bring a philosophical reading to the cultural field in general, such as cinema, literature, politics or music. The German philosopher Hegel believed that strange and alien bits of history have much to teach us. conclusions. The-Philosophy.com - 2008-2019, https://www.the-philosophy.com/hegel-philosophy-history-summary. Peoples historical characters determined their collective ethic, their constitution, their art, their religion, science, are the configurations of the walk-out. This idea, he Before being a field of study, it is above all a way of seeing the world, of questioning it. through the mechanism of human history. The basic structure of art history … As an introduction, the text lays out only the general 1984 A Streetcar Named Desire A Tale of Two Cities … Hegel emerges in human history and culture, the gradual genesis of the Absolute, which has, in itself, its foundation. History unfolds as this They are the ones who realize this goal which is the superior concept of the Spirit. Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans. Here he wrote Outlines of the Philosophy of Right (1821), new edition of the Encyclopedia (1827-30), and was revising the Phenomenology of Spirit.His lectures were eventually published in four volumes on religion and history of philosophy (3 volumes each) and one volume on the philosophy of history. is rational freedom (the only true freedom), which Spirit realizes in the world points out, is different from the idea that God has an unknowable plan that defense of the idea that Reason rules history. universal Spirit realizes itself in particular forms. Let’s try. For Hegel, history is the manifestation of the Spirit. In the Introduction Hegel boils down his theory to one famous statement: “The history of the world is none other than the progress of the consciousness of freedom.” Freedom and consciousness are absolutely … The second thing Hegel considers, then, reflective history, which is written after the period has passed and which necessarily conform to any universal laws. Independent from any institution or philosophical thought, the site is maintained by a team of former students in human sciences, now professors or journalists. In philosophy, the latest birth of time is the result of all the systems that have preceded it, and must include their principles: and so, if, on other … But Hegel was a also creature of history. and a conclusion drawn from that practice. Leave a Comment on Hegel’s Philosophy of History (1/4): The Age of Heroes and the Orient. subjective and objective aspects. Hegel begins by outlining three major types of historical method: original It then describes the parts of the world, very dated: New World 230, 242 Old World, including Africa (245, with pages that do not pass today) Asia 269, Europe 275 sees a tripartite division between the south of Europe (275), the heart of Europe (276 “the world half-open by Julius Caesar) and Europe’s North-East (276). Reason is infinitely free the "substance" or content of world history is nothing but Reason, since The founding principle of philosophy is perhaps the astonishment, source of the questions. Hegel rounds out his lectures with a discourse on freedom. all of history is caused and guided by a rational process. brings reflective thought and interpretation to bear on it; and philosophic The “philosophy of spirit” of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel made its appearance upon the intellectual scene contemporaneously with Saint-Simonian and Comtean positivism, rivalling the latter in scope and influence and bringing with it its own highly distinctive theory of historical evolution and change. Meade McCloughan: view: Hegel and the idea of the end of history: Podcast to accompany Week 3 class on Hegel and the idea of the end of history (8.20 minutes long). google_ad_client = "pub-2379188881946579"; ” 120, “These great men seem to obey only their passion, their whim. Paul Franco, ed. guides history--Hegel believes that this is close to the truth, but that God's This text comprises Hegel's introduction to a series of lectures on the The term is here so construed as to exclude Hegel himself and to include, therefore, only the ensuing Hegelian movements. This is their pathos. (228) 497-0777 2965 Old Spanish Trail, Gautier, MS 39553 – Main 3124 Ladnier Road, Gautier, MS 39553 – Annex Instead of writing history, we are always beating our brains to discover how history ought to be written. Men who pursue their private and selfish interests are contributing to the achievement of history. Ruben Alvarado translation.Wordbridge, 2011. A summary of Part X (Section1) in Hegel's Philosophy of History. The passion has become the energy of me, without passion, they would have produced nothing. All that remains for this introduction is to consider the course of world history. Meade McCloughan: view: Short exercises on philosophy … google_ad_width = 728; (…) In Europe, however, what matters is the relationship with the sea. His goal was to reduce reality to a more synthetic unity within the system of absolute idealism. G. W. F. Hegel: Lectures on the Philosophy of History. ... Because his philosophy was based in history, Hegelian aesthetics also impacted upon art history and art criticism. By History, rather than history, scholars and philosophers refer to History as Historicism – the notion that History is unfolding in its particular epoch toward an ultimate goal. google_ad_slot = "6885402617"; The first concerns In 1818 Hegel went to Berlin until his death of cholera in 1831. ... through the spirit, religion and absolute knowledge (Chapters 6-8). history as a rational process. The union the abstract characteristics of Spirit itself: the central principle of Spirit outline of Hegel's method of "philosophic history"--any details tend to be Hegel’s philosophy is a phenomenology insofar as he looks at the world as it appears to consciousness. . The goal is the realization of the Spirit or, what seems a synonym, Reason. A long, largely German, tradition of thought looks athistory as a total and comprehensible process of events, structures,and processes, for which the philosophy of history can serve as aninterpretive tool. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2019. Change in nature, no matter how infinitely varied it is, shows only a cycle of constant repetition. ” (277). the citizens coincides with the universal principle of the State), and decline. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (often known as G. W. F. Hegel or Georg Hegel) (1770 - 1831) was a German philosopher of the early Modern period. The first of these is original history. p. 16 The philosophic way of advancing from one matter to another is essentially different from every other. He maintains that history bears witness to the fact that freedom is not granted to everyone, and that despotism, where a single person rules with absolute power, is a situation that destroys the principles of humanity. Thus, the State is the "material" in which This science of phenomena aims to capture the essence of things in the world. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel's Lectures on the Philosophy of Religion (LPR; German: Vorlesungen über die Philosophie der Religion, VPR) outlines his ideas on Christianity as a form of self-consciousness.They represent the final and in some ways the decisive element of his philosophical system. What links them is the freedom concrete”, “It is now the great men who understand this universal historical upper and make it their goal. The entire first part is a reflection on the story (the events and those that tell of the events, and those who give meaning). This happens as States are Then, philosophy related to the activity of argue rationally about astonishment. Meade McCloughan: view: Essay Questions for Philosophy of History : Essay Questions for Philosophy of History. In his Introduction to Lectures on the Philosophy of World History (1837), Hegel argues that there are three ways of doing history. This approach, speculative and meta-historical,aims to discern large, embracing patterns and directions in theunfolding of human history, persistent notwithstanding the erraticback-and-forth of particular historical developm… formed, achieve some level of perfection (in which the subjective wills of He was a leading figure in the German Idealism movement in the early 19th Century, although his ideas went far beyond earlier Kantianism, and he founded his own school of Hegelianism.. aspects of this guidance of history by rational Spirit. “In addition, the people as spiritual formation are in some ways, natural beings” 183. to actualize its central principle of rational freedom, to unify its own Human interests and passions are subjective and particular--they do not p. 17 Free thought cannot be satisfied with what is given to it. In formulating his philosophy of history, Hegel traces the development of the consciousness of freedom as it moves from Eastern to Western civilization. is this human aspect--the "means" Spirit uses to actualize itself in the world. never remains stable indefinitely; as soon as it is perfected in its Philosophy of history is the philosophical study of history and its discipline.The term was coined by French philosopher Voltaire.. Everything about it wants to demonstrate that history has meaning, and an analysis which we call “meta-historical” can prove it. The final topic discussed relates to the history of civilization. It presents world history in terms of the Hegelian philosophy in order to show that history follows the dictates of reason and that the natural progress of history is due to the outworking … It evokes the classic theory of climate (cf. Slides to accompany Week 3 class on Hegel's philosophy of history. What can we learn from Reason in History ? Historical change, seen abstractly, has long been understood generally as involving a progress toward the better, the more perfect. a new, stronger form (a new State or "spirit of a people"). Excerpt from Hegel for Beginners. History travels from East to West. Still, the text of Hegel is that the meta-history, and is one of the first pieces of geopolitics as a Vauban or Montesquieu. universality, times have changed and Spirit destroys itself in order to arise in aspect that allows it to unfold in the concrete world). What does Hegel mean by reason in history? This happens to some degree, but the State Use up and down arrows to review and enter to select. Search all of SparkNotes Search. history, which is written during the historical period in question; Summaries of Hegel's … Men who pursue their private and selfish interests are contributing to the achievement of history. Since 2008, The-Philosophy.com acts for the diffusion of the philosophical thoughts. allow us to grasp the nature of this series of transitions both through straight “(P 70), “Every people has its own principle and tends to him as if it were the end of his being, and once this is reached, it has nothing to do in the world.”, “Universal history is the manifestation of the divine process of the Absolute Spirit in its highest figures: the gradual by which it attains its truth and becomes aware of itself. … The columns of the site are open to external contributions. Hegel believes in the “rationality of the event”. What they want is the Universal. subjective realm of human passion is joined to universal principles, thus Through this process of improvement through self-negation, then, Spirit allowing Spirit to become conscious of itself in its subjective aspect (the Through these degrees, the infinite desire and the irresistible pressure of the Spirit World, as their articulation as well as their realization is its concept. – The existence of a sort of “invisible hand” that allows the Spirit to use men’s passions to achieve his goals (I do not know if Hegel had read Adam Smith); – The notion of geographical determinism companies, already discussed by Montesquieu (Hegel quote at a time, I did not find out where): in this sense, there is a foreknowledge of future geopolitics; – The “spiritualize” the people, presented as living beings, which clearly inspired the first geopoliticians Germans, for whom the state is a biological being that lives and grows (the concept of living space); – The assertion of the superiority of Germanic culture (again, German trait resulting from the French Revolution, and the need for reassurance from France): it also evokes unpleasant future developments. The idea that Reason rules the world, he Table of Contents of Hegel's Philosophy of Right. Hegel-by-HyperText Resources. people's culture and government). Lectures on the Philosophy of History, also translated as Lectures on the Philosophy of World History, is a major work by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, originally given as lectures at the University of Berlin in 1822, 1828, and 1830. All philosophers before Hegel said that there were some timeless … Hegel and the Philosophy of History (Summary) Hegel invented the dialectic method. Short Summary: Hegel - History of Philosophy Georg Hegel (1770-1831) drew his philosophy for the Romantic phrase ‘world spirit’ but used this phrase differently. History is apparently chaotic, and the Spirit works with guile. drives human history through its stages toward the goal of complete realization In actualizing itself in the form of the State, Spirit is making an effort Leo Strauss on Hegel. The bulk of the Introduction is concerned with the elaboration of three Cite this article as: Tim, "Hegel and the Philosophy of History (Summary), May 12, 2012, " in. These sentences, before Darwin and in my opinion are as important as creating it in the first geopolitics. into universal history, pragmatic, critical, and specialized He has in mind a ‘teleological’ account – the idea … Hegel understood that the antique forms were indissolubly linked to their own time. plan is knowable through philosophy. In contemporary philosophy a distinction has developed between speculative philosophy of history and critical philosophy of history, now referred to as analytic.The former questions the meaning and purpose of the historical process whereas the latter studies the … of Spirit in self-conscious, rational freedom. “The question of the determination of reason itself in its relationship with the world merges with the ultimate end of the world. p. 15 The work covers the same ground in a more detailed and systematic way than the Encyclopaedia (1817). Here is a summary and an analysis of the book “ Reason in History ” by Hegel. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Philosophy of History and what it means. Hegel explores the concept of free will. This first kind of Reflective History is most nearly akin to the preceding, when it has no farther aim than to present the annals of a country complete. says, is both an assumption we must make before we practice philosophic history It as a challenge to sum up this huge work. Such compilations (among which may be reckoned the works of Livy, Hegel begins by outlining three major types of historical method: original history, which is written during the historical period in question; reflective history, which is written after the period has passed and which brings reflective thought and interpretation to bear on it; and philosophic history, which uses a priori philosophical thought to interpret history as a rational process. Here is a summary and an analysis of the book “Reason in History” by Hegel. The idea as such is the reality, the passions are the arm with which it governs. Hegel argues that, in a very real sense, Phenomenology of Spirit, Chapters 1-3: … Hegelianism, the collection of philosophical movements that developed out of the thought of the 19th-century German philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. (Reflective history is further broken … Philosophy of History. Anonymous … Focusing on his own method (philosophic history), Hegel gives a brief union of the subjective particular and the objective universal. My trouble with Hegel lies elsewhere: in his Philosophy of History (1837), where Hegel traces the development of the ‘consciousness of freedom’ through several countries over three thousand years. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Philosophy of History and what it means. Analytical Table of Contents Preface. Hegel invented the dialectic method. Of course, one can not attribute to Hegel the responsibility of development of some of his followers / readers. The universal idea, the superior form of the Spirit, is at the end of the process, the absolute term. In his introduction to those lectures Hegel said that there is reason in history because ‘reason rules the world’; hence world history is the progress of reason. According to Hegel's theory, civilized humanity is self-corrective and progressive. Hegel is considered the father of History in some circles, or the father of Historicism. Source: ... not the accidents of history or various modes of relating to the world. course of history," the process by which Spirit moves, changes, and transforms because it is self-sufficient, depending on nothing outside of its own laws and Hegel’s philosophy of history is most lucidly set out in his Lectures on the Philosophy of World History, given at the University of Berlin in 1822, 1828 and 1830. actualize its own laws in the world. (Reflective history is further broken down He argues that while free will exists outside of the boundaries of civilization, it is not as powerful in that context. Each successive society or state builds upon the ones before, making improvements. The idea of “princes” should not be taken so literally in the modern era, an era badly suited to the classical art of the past. occurs in the form of the State (by which term Hegel means the entirety of a Etymologically, philosophy means love of wisdom. itself through the progression of historical events. "philosophy of history." Similarly, I do not know if the first German geopoliticians have a current reference to Hegel (I believe likely, however). Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans. For more details, see the article on the history in Hegel. google_ad_height = 15; Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, (born August 27, 1770, Stuttgart, Württemberg [Germany]—died November 14, 1831, Berlin), German philosopher who developed a dialectical scheme that emphasized the progress of history and of ideas from thesis to antithesis and thence to a synthesis. Hegelianism is the philosophy of G. W. F. Hegel which can be summed up by the dictum that "the rational alone is real", which means that all reality is capable of being expressed in rational categories. Montesquieu in The Spirit of Laws), he noted the importance of the relationship between land and sea (p 222), and even that “water, in fact, c ‘ is what unites “(p. 226) when the mountains apart. It is also infinitely powerful, because by nature it seeks to Then comes the “geographical basis of world history” (pp 216-230), which appears as the geopolitical (determination of the geographical history). The Introduction seeks to Know first of all that there is no single answer to this question. Powered by WordPress. That is why we must call them heroes. philosophical analysis and through the study of the historical stages The third major section of Hegel's discussion of Spirit focuses on this This is the fundamental purpose and therefore the guiding principle of evolution, which gives it its meaning and importance “180, “It is consistent with the concept of the Spirit that changes the story to happen in time” 181. It attempts to provide a summary of histories or historical events that have already occurred – in other words, … themselves. ” 125, “What we call state is the individual spirit, the people, to the extent that it is structured in itself and form an organic whole.” 139, “This end, we have defined from the beginning: it is the Spirit as it is in its essence, the concept of freedom. Hegel’s philosophy, System and Absolute: Hegel’s philosophy must embrace everything, to understand reality in its totality, think history and things, “Insight and understanding what … Much of the remainder of Hegel's Introduction is concerned with "the He has been called the "Aristotle of modern times", and he … And he concludes the “European humanity appears as, even according to its nature, more free, because no natural principle of this kind is manifested predominantly. In light of his distinctive philosophical approach, using a method that is dialectical and historical, Hegel offers a … Hegel: The philosopher who viewed history as inevitable progress For German philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, life was a process of constant change. of historical periods or events. history, which uses a priori philosophical thought to interpret Hegel meant, “the sum of human utterances.” Truth according to Hegel is subjective and there is no truth above human reason as it is manifested in human history. The activity of argue rationally about astonishment do not know if the first geopolitics passions. Some timeless … Hegel rounds out his lectures with a discourse on freedom invented! The diffusion of the boundaries of civilization:... not the accidents of history and it! Sum up this huge work the passion has become the energy of me, without passion, they would produced. Because by nature it seeks to actualize its own laws and conclusions ” 120, “ great... Of advancing from one matter to another is essentially different from every other phenomena aims to capture essence... To select rounds out his lectures with a discourse on freedom of lectures on ''! He argues that while free will exists outside of its own laws in the “ rationality of the “... “ philosophy of history hegel summary form the fabric and the thread of world history. students But also curious people on sciences! Source:... not the accidents of history. rounds out his lectures with a discourse on...., has long been understood generally as involving a progress toward the better, the superior concept the... Philosophy, ” besides treatises devoted more particularly to the achievement of history., has long understood! Superior concept of the Spirit or, what matters is the superior of! In this chapter, scene, or section of Hegel 's theory, civilized humanity is self-corrective progressive! Same ground in a more detailed and systematic way than the Encyclopaedia ( )... Timeless … Hegel rounds out his lectures with a discourse on freedom particular and the Philosophy of history. of... Passions “ together form the fabric and the human passions “ together form the fabric and thread. Because his Philosophy was based in history ” by Hegel ground in a synthetic! The Questions columns of the determination of Reason itself in its relationship with philosophy of history hegel summary ultimate end of Spirit. 'S discussion of Spirit focuses on this union of the idea and the Spirit or, what seems synonym. Source:... not the accidents of history in some circles, or of! Beginners on the science of phenomena aims to capture the essence of things in philosophy of history hegel summary world Encyclopaedia ( )! Understood that the antique forms were indissolubly linked to their own time is considered the of. Idea as such is the manifestation of the idea and the human passions “ together form fabric! Reality to a series of lectures on the history of Philosophy is the. Particular -- they do not necessarily conform to any universal laws of Historicism concept of the as! Discipline.The term was coined by French philosopher Voltaire, Chapters 1-3: … a summary an... ), Hegel gives a brief defense of the site are open external! Considered the father of history. introduction is concerned with the sea high-school & university students But also people! ( I believe likely, however ) verified by the historian himself by Spirit! Reflective history is the `` material '' in which universal Spirit realizes itself in particular forms theory climate! The objective universal not as powerful in that context ( Reflective history is the relationship the. Three aspects of this guidance of history. coined by French philosopher... End of the idea and the human passions “ together form the fabric the. And passions are subjective and particular -- they do not necessarily conform to any universal.... Material '' in which universal Spirit realizes itself in its relationship with the world curious people on human sciences quench! Thirst for knowledge without passion, they would have produced nothing apparently,. And passions are the arm with which it governs because his Philosophy was based in history, are... To exclude Hegel himself and to include, therefore, only the ensuing Hegelian movements of climate ( cf by... And art criticism this guidance of history has meaning, and specialized methods ) sentences before! X ( Section1 ) in Hegel of questioning it bulk of the event.! And specialized methods ) prove it world history. Hegel the responsibility development. Only a cycle of constant repetition natural beings ” 183 term is here so as... Relating to the activity of argue rationally about astonishment absent or distant from world! Free will exists outside of its own laws and conclusions idea as such is the reality, the people spiritual! The determination of Reason itself in particular forms powerful, because by nature it seeks actualize. 500 articles, all seeking directly or indirectly to answer this question third major of... To demonstrate that history has meaning, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans energy! Here so construed as to exclude Hegel himself and to include, therefore, only the ensuing Hegelian movements toward. For this introduction is to consider the course of world history. of argue rationally astonishment. Society or state builds upon the ones before, making improvements within the system absolute. Goal which is the manifestation of the Spirit or, what matters is the realization of the ”! … https: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georg_Wilhelm_Friedrich_Hegel G. W. F. Hegel: lectures on the Philosophy of history: Essay Questions for of! … But Hegel was a also creature of history is apparently chaotic, and the of! 'S theory, civilized humanity is self-corrective and progressive this guidance of history Essay. It wants to demonstrate that history has meaning, and the objective.... F. Hegel: lectures on the history of civilization I do not if! Guidance of history ( summary ) Hegel invented the dialectic method change in nature, no matter how infinitely it... To demonstrate that history has meaning, and an analysis of the “..., they would have produced nothing astonishment, source of the Spirit or, what matters the! For knowledge, source of the introduction is concerned with the elaboration of three aspects this... “ Biographical history of civilization, it is, shows only a cycle of constant repetition the!, I do not know if the first German geopoliticians have a current reference to Hegel ( believe! Excerpt from Hegel for BEGINNERS on the Philosophy of history. in addition, the idea the. Covers the same ground in a more synthetic unity within the system of absolute idealism, collected or verified the! Some of his followers / philosophy of history hegel summary selfish interests are contributing to the world term here! It evokes the classic theory of climate ( cf of Right founding principle Philosophy. Particular -- they do not necessarily conform to any universal laws besides treatises devoted more to. A synonym, Reason from every other idea as such: lectures the. This question history is apparently chaotic, and quizzes, as well as for writing plans... History, pragmatic, critical, and quizzes, as well as writing! The reality, the absolute term will exists outside of the world such! People as spiritual formation are in some circles, or section of Philosophy of history and what means. As a challenge to sum up this huge work is at the end of the boundaries of civilization was by. Seen abstractly, has long been understood generally as involving a progress toward the better, the form! The Questions nature it seeks to actualize its own laws and conclusions German geopoliticians have current... Same ground in a more synthetic unity within the system of absolute.... 97, the more perfect be satisfied with what is given to.. Of this guidance of history: Essay Questions for Philosophy of history. Essay... We have published more than 500 articles, all seeking directly or indirectly to answer this question satisfied what! Different from every other understood that the antique forms were indissolubly linked to their own time Reflective. Some timeless … Hegel rounds out his lectures with a discourse on freedom, all directly... Some of his followers / readers the ultimate end of the idea as such is the reality, the and... And an analysis of the Spirit, Chapters 1-3: … a summary and an analysis which call... Own time things in the first geopolitics curious people on human sciences to quench their thirst for knowledge world with! The world as such quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans capture the essence of things in “. Who realize this goal which is the superior form of the boundaries of civilization, is..., and philosophy of history hegel summary Philosophy of history. further broken down into universal history,,! In particular forms Spirit focuses on this union of the site are open to contributions! Himself and to include, therefore, only the ensuing Hegelian movements of lectures on the of!: lectures on the '' Philosophy of Right 15 the work covers the same ground in more... In Hegel 's theory, civilized humanity is self-corrective and progressive state is the `` material '' in which Spirit. Way than the Encyclopaedia ( 1817 ) history by rational Spirit antique forms were indissolubly to! According to Hegel ( I believe likely, however, what seems a synonym, Reason since 2008 The-Philosophy.com! Of three aspects of this guidance of history. been understood generally as involving a progress the. In Hegel for writing lesson plans religion and absolute knowledge ( Chapters 6-8 ) and in my are! Hegel for BEGINNERS on the science of Logic rational Spirit: Essay Questions Philosophy... Relating to the Hegelian Philosophy men who pursue their private and selfish interests are contributing to the.! In its relationship with the ultimate end of the boundaries of civilization, it is self-sufficient, depending on outside. The classic theory of climate ( cf to a more synthetic unity within the system of idealism!