The river is especially critical since rainfall is meagre in the lower Indus valley. Southwest Asia and Central Europe. [63] As of September 2010[update], over two thousand people had died and over a million homes had been destroyed since the flooding began. It flows swiftly across Hazara and is dammed at the Tarbela Reservoir. They depended on yearly floods too. [62] In early August, the heaviest flooding moved southward along the Indus River from severely affected northern regions toward western Punjab, where at least 1,400,000 acres (570,000 ha) of cropland was destroyed, and the southern province of Sindh. [30] Earlier work showed that sand and silt from western Tibet was reaching the Arabian Sea by 45 million years ago, implying the existence of an ancient Indus River by that time. [36] Many of the species of the middle sections of the Indus basin are also present in the lower. Agriculture is sustained largely due to irrigation works. [68], In Pakistan currently there are six barrages on the Indus: Guddu barrage, Sukkur Barrage, Kotri barrage (also called Ghulam Muhammad barrage), Taunsa Barrage, Chashma Barrage and Jinnah Barrage. One of the oldest religions in the modern world, dating back over 4000 years, and originating in the Indus River Valley of what is today part of Pakistan. [36] This includes including pomfret and prawns. According to the World Wildlife Fund it is one of the most threatened cetaceans with only about 1,000 still existing. The Indus civilization apparently evolved from the villages of neighbours or predecessors, using the Mesopotamian model of irrigated agriculture with sufficient skill to reap the advantages of the spacious and fertile Indus River valley while controlling the formidable annual flood that simultaneously fertilizes and destroys. Chronologically, the third of the six urbanization hearths. The river has historically been important to many cultures of the region. Learn more about the Mauryan empire in this article. Floods wiped out the irrigation system that supplied water to the crops, and many of the buildings were smothered. AP Human Geography Exam Score of 9.7 11.6 12.1 16.5 16.7 17.9 20. 3,249 km (2,019 mi) actual as mentioned in History Books. The Rigvedic hymns apply a feminine gender to all the rivers mentioned therein, except for the Brahmaputra. all videos study guides slides. AP Human Geography- … Jean Fairley, "The Lion River", Karachi, 1978. The Rigvedic "Sindhu" is thought to be the present-day Indus river. "Now what does that mean to a population that lives in a desert [where], without the river, there would be no life? Huang He River Valley. Name: _____ AP Human Geography Summer Assignment 2016-2017 A large part of being successful in AP Human Geography is having a base knowledge of the globe, important places, important physical features, and key terms. The Indus also supports many heavy industries and provides the main supply of potable water in Pakistan. Beginning in a mountain spring and fed with glaciers and rivers in the Himalayan, Karakoram and Hindu Kush ranges, the river supports the ecosystems of temperate forests, plains and arid countryside. 23: 7203449284: Rise of the State In November 2011, satellite images showed that the Indus river had re-entered India, feeding Great Rann of Kutch, Little Rann of Kutch and a lake near Ahmedabad known as Nal Sarovar. Beyond this confluence, the river, at one time, was named the Satnad River (sat = "seven", nadī = "river"), as the river now carried the waters of the Kabul River, the Indus River and the five Punjab rivers. The Sukkur Barrage serves over 20,000 km2 (7,700 sq mi). During his reign, the Greek explorer Scylax of Caryanda was commissioned to explore the course of the Indus. The Indus River (called Sindhū in Sanskrit with cognates in most Indic languages)[1][2] is one of the main rivers of the Indo-Gangetic Plain in the Indian subcontinent. 918 terms. NicoLeis. Culture complex combines cultural traits (attributes of culture). "[54], Over the years factories on the banks of the Indus River have increased levels of water pollution in the river and the atmosphere around it. (river valley article) The River valley was at its peak and it was richest between 2600 and 1900 B.C. The earliest chronicles and hymns of the Aryan peoples of ancient India, the Rigveda, composed about 1500 BCE, mention the river… [47][48] Any further utilization of the river basin water is not economically feasible. a place in which a religion originates (river hearths: Yellow River, Indus Valley, Tigris Euphrates, Nile Valley) Secularism the idea that ethical and moral standards should be formulated for life on Earth, not to accommodate the prescriptions of a deity and promises of a comfortable afterlife (ex: communist countries removing religious traditions) It is attested 176 times in its text, 94 times in the plural, and most often used in the generic sense of "river". [3] It flows through China (western Tibet), India, and Pakistan. But the civilization started to fall apart between 1900 and 1700 B.C. Chronologically, the fourth of the six urbanization hearths. [31] The delta of this proto-Indus river has subsequently been found in the Katawaz Basin, on the Afghan-Pakistan border. Ecology. [42], The ethnicities of the Indus Valley (Pakistan and Northwest India) have a greater amount of ANI (or West Eurasian) admixture than other South Asians, including inputs from Western Steppe Herders, with evidence of more sustained and multi-layered migrations from the west. [36] As the altitude further declines the Indus basin becomes overall quite slow-flowing as it passes through the Punjab Plain. The flow of the river is also determined by the seasons – it diminishes greatly in the winter, while flooding its banks in the monsoon months from July to September. Geography World View Science Pets & Animals ... which spread outward with human migration. Example of Human / Environment Interaction - Rivers and Early Civilizations All of the River Valley Civilizations - Ancient Mesopotamia, Egypt, China, and India - depended on rivers for food, building materials, transportation, and many other things. [4] Originating in the Tibetan Plateau in the vicinity of Lake Manasarovar, the river runs a course through the Ladakh region of India[a] towards Gilgit-Baltistan, and then flows in a southerly direction along the entire length of Pakistan to merge into the Arabian Sea near the port city of Karachi in Sindh. Create your own unique website with customizable templates. Passing by Jamshoro, it ends in a large delta to the South of Thatta in the Sindh province of Pakistan, The Indus is one of the few rivers in the world to exhibit a tidal bore. For the Bronze Age civilisation, see, "Indus" and "Sindhu" redirect here. Damming has also isolated the delta population of Indus river dolphins from those further upstream. [49][50], Vegetation and wildlife of the Indus delta are threatened by the reduced inflow of fresh water, along with extensive deforestation, industrial pollution and global warming. Historians and scholars describe the work found on pots as very high quality with unusually beautiful designs. Extensive deforestation and human interference in the ecology of the Shivalik Hills has led to a marked deterioration in vegetation and growing conditions. This civilization was spread over an area of about 1600 kilometers from West to East and 1100 kilometers … The Indus then flows northwest through Ladakh, India, and Baltistan into Gilgit, just south of the Karakoram range. [58], The Indus is second among a group of ten rivers responsible for about 90% of all the plastic that reaches the oceans. Indus Valley Civilisation Geographical range Basins of the Indus River, Pakistan and the seasonal Ghaggar-Hakra river, northwest India and eastern Pakistan Period Bronze Age South Asia Dates c. 3300 – c. 1300 BCE Type site Harappa Major sites Harappa, Mohenjo-daro , Dholavira, Ganeriwala, and Rakhigarhi Preceded by Mehrgarh Followed by Painted Grey Ware culture Cemetery H culture … The first farmers also liked to live near rivers. This page was last edited on 8 December 2020, at 03:48. The Indus are said to have advanced in pottery, weaving and metal work. [36] Going downstream these are soon joined by the golden mahseer Tor putitora (alternatively T. macrolepis, although it often is regarded as a synonym of T. putitora) and Schistura loaches. The Indus River (called Sindhū in Sanskrit with cognates in most Indic languages) is one of the main rivers of the Indo-Gangetic Plain in the Indian subcontinent. Sanskrit connections to English. hamilton98lj. The word Punjab means "land of five rivers" and the five rivers are Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas and Sutlej, all of which finally flow into the Indus. Indus River Valley civilizations. Most scholars believe that settlements of Gandhara grave culture of the early Indo-Aryans flourished in Gandhara from 1700 BC to 600 BC, when Mohenjo-daro and Harappa had already been abandoned. Indus River Valley. jrdbnntt. Mesopotamia. The 3rd millennium BC saw the rise of a major urban civilization of the Bronze Age. The Zanskar River, which flows into the Indus in Ladakh, has a greater volume of water than the Indus itself before that point.[24]. The Indus Valley Civilization was not confined to these two sites in the north-western area of the subcontinent. Modern irrigation was introduced by the British East India Company in 1850 – the construction of modern canals accompanied with the restoration of old canals. [citation needed]. [36] The lowermost part of the river and its delta are home to freshwater fish, but also a number of brackish and marine species. Southern India and Eastern China. The seven original cultural hearths are the Nile River valley, the Indus River valley, the Wei-Huang valley, the Ganges River valley, Mesopotamia, Mesoamerica and West Africa. Had elaborately planned cities. Studies of the sediment in the modern river indicate that the Karakoram Mountains in northern Pakistan and India are the single most important source of material, with the Himalayas providing the next largest contribution, mostly via the large rivers of the Punjab (Jhelum, Ravi, Chenab, Beas and Sutlej). [40][41] Sindhu Darshan Festival is held on every Guru Purnima on the banks of Indus. The Kabul River joins it near Attock. It lasted from 321 to 185 BCE. APHG - FRQ #1. The Indus river feeds the Indus submarine fan, which is the second largest sediment body on the Earth. 77 terms. Nearing the end of the Indus Valley Civilization, the cities began to wither and the strong economy slowly deteriorated. Biologyiscool TEACHER. Unit 2: River Valley Civilizations Patrick Henry High School » Teacher Pages » Social Studies » B. Bellinger » Pre AP World History I » Unit 2: River Valley Civilizations Unit 1: Geography and Beginnings of Mankind cities, coal fields: Rate of Natural Increase: Subtract deaths from births: Dependency Rate: The percentage of people who are too young or too old to work in a … The Indus is the most important supplier of water resources to the Punjab and Sindh plains – it forms the backbone of agriculture and food production in Pakistan. ... AP Human Geography Unit 4 Vocabulary. Here, the river turns into many marshes, streams and creeks and meets the sea at shallow levels. [18] A later Persian name for the river was Darya,[19] which similarly has the connotations of large body of water and sea. The influence of this culture extended to the Punjab, Sindh, North West Frontier Province (now in Pakistan), Baluchistan, Rajasthan, U.P., Gujarat and even some parts of south India. The major cities of the Indus Valley Civilisation, such as Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, date back to around 3300 BC, and represent some of the largest human habitations of the ancient world. The river has a total drainage area exceeding 1,165,000 km2 (450,000 sq mi). Matching game, word search puzzle, and hangman also available. [61] In July 2010, following abnormally heavy monsoon rains, the Indus River rose above its banks and started flooding. Indus River - an Asian river that rises in Tibet and flows through northern India and then southwest through Kashmir and Pakistan to the Arabian Sea; "the valley of … Indus civilization remnants have been discovered from as far south as Mumbai [Bombay], in Maharashtra State, India, and as far north as the Himalayas and northern Afghanistan. AP Human Geography Unit 7. The remainder of its route to the sea is in the plains of the Punjab[20] and Sindh, where the flow of the river becomes slow and highly braided. [29] It consists of around 5 million cubic kilometres of material eroded from the mountains. ", 10.1130/0016-7606(2001)113<1039:DOTIFA>2.0.CO;2, "Corona effect: Only Sindhis allowed for Sindhu Darshan Fest", "The Genetic Ancestry of Modern Indus Valley Populations from Northwest India", "Indus Delta, Pakistan: economic costs of reduction in freshwater flow", International Union for Conservation of Nature, "Pakistan's water economy: getting the balance right", "Pakistan's floodwaters welcomed along Indus delta", "River basin development phases and implications of closure", "Integrated Water Resource Systems: Theory and Policy Implications", "Technology Breakthroughs for Global Water Security: A Deep Dive into South Asia", "Global warming benefits to Tibet: Chinese official. The visible imprint of human activity and culture on the landscape. The first West Eurasian empire to annex the Indus Valley was the Persian Empire, during the reign of Darius the Great. It includes the location of the Indus Valley Civilization, as well as other countries that surround it. [26] The Sutlej, now a tributary of the Indus, in Harappan times flowed into the Ghaggar-Hakra River, in the watershed of which were more Harappan sites than along the Indus. Indus river is sacred to Hindus. The Indus Basin Project consisted primarily of the construction of two main dams, the Mangla Dam built on the Jhelum River and the Tarbela Dam constructed on the Indus River, together with their subsidiary dams. [21][22] Presently, Indus water flows in to the Rann of Kutch during its floods breaching flood banks. Tigris and Euphrates rivers, Egypt (Nile River), Indus river valley, and China (east). Early historical kingdoms that arose in the Indus Valley include Gandhāra, and the Ror dynasty of Sauvīra. The layers of buildings, forms, and artifacts sequentially imprinted on the landscape by the activities of various human occupants… [5] The Indus is the longest river of Pakistan.[6]. Qin Dahe, the former head of the China Meteorological Administration, said the recent fast pace of melting and warmer temperatures will be good for agriculture and tourism in the short term, but issued a strong warning: "There is insufficient data to say what will happen to the Indus," says David Grey, the World Bank's senior water advisor in South Asia. The right bank side is also leveed from Guddu barrage to Lake Manchar. The Guddu Barrage is 1,350 m (4,430 ft) long – irrigating Sukkur, Jacobabad, Larkana and Kalat. The lower basin of the Indus forms a natural boundary between the Iranian Plateau and the Indian subcontinent; this region embraces all or parts of the Pakistani provinces Balochistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Punjab and Sindh and the countries Afghanistan and India. The Indus River provides key water resources for Pakistan's economy – especially the breadbasket of Punjab province, which accounts for most of the nation's agricultural production, and Sindh. The Induan Age at start of the Triassic Period of geological time is named for the Indus region. In Sindh, the Indus burst its banks near Sukkur on 8 August, submerging the village of Mor Khan Jatoi. Practice: Ancient India. This river was known to the ancient Indians in Sanskrit as Sindhu and the Persians as Hindu which was regarded by both of them as "the border river". 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